Ratification Info
State by State

Montana
Ratified!
Jan. 25, 1974

Nebraska*
Ratified!
March 29, 1972

Nevada
Ratified!
March 21, 2017

Call Your Senators:
Catherine Cortez Masto

(202) 224-3542

Dean Heller
(202) 224-6244

New Hampshire
Ratified!
March 23, 1972

New Jersey
Ratified!
April 17, 1972

New Mexico
Ratified!
Feb. 28, 1973

New York
Ratified!
May 18, 1972

North Carolina
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Richard Burr

(202) 224-3154

Thom Tillis
(202) 224-6342

North Dakota
Ratified!
Feb. 3, 1975

Ohio
Ratified!
Feb. 7, 1974

Oklahoma
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Jim Inhofe

(202) 224-4721

James Lankford
(202) 224-5754

Oregon
Ratified!
Feb. 8, 1973

Pennsylvania
Ratified!
Sept. 26, 1972

Rhode Island
Ratified!
April 14, 1972

South Carolina
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Lindsey Graham

(202) 224-5972

Tim Scott
(202) 224-6121

South Dakota*
Ratified!
Feb. 5, 1973

Tennessee*
Ratified!
April 4, 1972

Texas
Ratified!
March 30, 1972

Utah
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Orin Hatch

(202) 224-5251

Mike Lee
(202) 224-5444

Vermont
Ratified!
March 1, 1973

Virginia
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Tim Kaine

(202) 224-4024

Mark Warner
(202) 224-2023

Washington
Ratified!
March 22, 1973

West Virginia
Ratified!
April 22, 1972

Wisconsin
Ratified!
April 26, 1972

Wyoming
Ratified!
Jan. 26, 1973

Alabama
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Doug Jones

(202) 224-3121

Richard Shelby
(202) 224-5744

Alaska
Ratified!
April 5, 1972

Arizona
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Jeff Flake

(202) 224-4521

Jon Kyl
(202) 224-2235

California
Ratified!
Nov. 13, 1972

Colorado
Ratified!
April 21, 1972

Connecticut
Ratified!
March 15, 1973

Delaware
Ratified!
March 23, 1972

Florida
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Bill Nelson

(202) 224-5274

Marco Rubio
(202) 224-3041

Georgia
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Johnny Isakson

(202) 224-3643

David Perdue
(202) 224-3521

Hawaii
Ratified!
March 22, 1972

Idaho*
Ratified!
March 24, 1972

Illinois
Ratified!
May 30, 2018

Call Your Senators:
Tammy Duckworth

(202) 224-2854

Richard Durbin
(202) 224-2152

Indiana
Ratified!
Jan. 24, 1977

Iowa
Ratified!
March 24, 1972

Kansas
Ratified!
March 28, 1972

Kentucky*
Ratified!
June 27, 1972

Louisiana
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Bill Cassidy

(202) 224-5824

John Kennedy
(202) 224-4623

Maine
Ratified!
Jan. 18, 1974

Maryland
Ratified!
May 26, 1972

Massachusetts
Ratified!
June 21, 1972

Michigan
Ratified!
May 22, 1972

Minnesota
Ratified!
Feb. 8, 1973

Mississippi
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Thad Cochran

(202) 224-5054

Roger Wicker
(202) 224-6253

Missouri
Not ratified

Call Your Senators:
Roy Blunt

(202) 224-5721

Claire McCaskill
(202) 224-6154


The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress on March 22, 1972 and sent to the states for ratification. In order to be added to the Constitution, it needed approval by legislatures in three-fourths (38) of the 50 states.

By 1977, the legislatures of 35 states had approved the amendment. In 1978, Congress voted to extend the original March 1979 deadline to June 30, 1982. However, no additional states voted yes before that date, and the ERA fell three states short of ratification.

The 15 states that did not ratify the Equal Rights Amendment before the 1982 deadline were Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah, and Virginia.

Since formulation of the "three-state strategy" for ratification in 1994, ERA bills have been introduced in subsequent years in one or more legislative sessions in ten of the unratified states (Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Utah, and Virginia).

Between 1995 and 2016, ERA ratification bills were released from committee in some states and were passed by one but not both houses of the legislature in two of them. In Illinois, the House but not the Senate passed an ERA ratification bill in 2003, while the Senate but not the House did so in 2014. In five of the six years between 2011 and 2016, the Virginia Senate passed a resolution ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment, but the House of Delegates never released a companion bill from committee for a full vote on the House floor.

On March 22, 2017, 45 years to the day after Congress passed the ERA, Nevada became the 36th state to ratify it. On May 30, 2018, Illinois became the 37th state.

ERA bills have also been introduced in the legislatures of Arizona, Florida, North Carolina, Utah, and Virginia.

Learn more about the history of the Equal Rights Amendment here.


*Five states have voted to rescind or otherwise withdraw their ratification of the ERA.

  • Nebraska: March 15, 1973

  • Tennessee: April 23, 1974

  • Idaho: February 8, 1977

  • Kentucky: March 20, 1978

  • South Dakota: March 5, 1979

Can a state legally rescind their ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment?

Article V of the Constitution speaks only to the states’ power to ratify an amendment but not to the power to rescind a ratification. All precedents concerning state rescissions of ratifications indicate that such actions are not valid and that the constitutional amendment process as described in Article V allows only for ratification. For example, the official tally of ratifying states for the 14th Amendment in 1868 by both the Secretary of State and Congress included New Jersey and Ohio, states which had passed resolutions to rescind their ratifications. Also included in the tally were North Carolina and South Carolina, states which had originally rejected and later ratified the amendment. In the course of promulgating the 14th Amendment, therefore, Congress determined that both attempted withdrawals of ratifications and previous rejections prior to ratification had no legal validity.

Therefore, it is most likely that the actions of the five states — Idaho, Kentucky, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Tennessee — that voted to rescind their ratification of the ERA between 1972 and 1982 are a legal nullity.