In the States

The ERA in the States

The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress on March 22, 1972 and sent to the states for ratification. In order to be added to the Constitution, it needed approval by legislatures in three-fourths (38) of the 50 states.

By 1977, the legislatures of 35 states had approved the amendment. In 1978, Congress voted to extend the original March 1979 deadline to June 30, 1982. However, no additional states voted yes before that date, and the ERA fell three states short of ratification.

The 15 states that did not ratify the Equal Rights Amendment before the 1982 deadline were Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah, and Virginia.

Permission to use with credit to

After formulation of the "three-state strategy" for ratification in 1994, ERA bills were introduced in subsequent years in one or more legislative sessions in ten of the unratified states (Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Virginia).

Between 1995 and 2016, ERA ratification bills were released from committee in some states and were passed by one but not both houses of the legislature in two of them. In Illinois, the House but not the Senate passed an ERA ratification bill in 2003, while the Senate but not the House did so in 2014. In five of the six years between 2011 and 2016, the Virginia Senate passed a resolution ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment, but the House of Delegates never released a companion bill from committee for a full vote on the House floor.

On March 22, 2017, 45 years to the day after Congress passed the ERA, Nevada became the 36th state to ratify it.  In 2017 ERA bills have also been introduced in the legislatures of Arizona, Florida, Illinois, North Carolina, Utah, and Virginia.

Reports from the States

Even after the 1982 deadline, ERA advocates in both unratified and ratified states have continued to educate and organize politically to put the Equal Rights Amendment into the Constitution.

Continuing updates are provided here to inform policymakers and the public about political activity that is currently happening with the Equal Rights Amendment at the state level.

Click on the name of a state to find out about ERA advocacy there.

Unratified States










North Carolina


South Carolina



Ratified States


[Further information: Janette Dean,]


March 22: After Senate concurs with Assembly technical amendment by voice vote, Nevada becomes the 36th state to ratify the ERA (exactly 45 years after the ERA was passed by Congress on March 22, 1972, and 40 years since the last previous ratification in 1977).
  Reno Gazette-Journal, “ 'This bill is about equality. Period': Nevada OKs the ERA
  PR Newswire, “BREAKING: Nevada Legislature Votes to Ratify the Equal Rights Amendment
  KOLO news report (video)
March 20: Assembly passes ERA bill 28-14
  Reno Gazette-Journal, “Equal Rights Amendment passes Nevada Assembly; Senate likely to concur
  Los Angeles Times, “Thirty-five years past a deadline set by Congress, Nevada ratifies the Equal Rights Amendment
March 18: Las Vegas Review-Journal, “Nevada Legislature on cusp of historic vote on Equal Rights Amendment
March 15: Las Vegas Weekly, “Just in time: Nevada prepares to pass the Equal Rights Amendment at a pivotal moment
March 14: Assembly committee passes ERA bill 7-4 with technical amendment
  Las Vegas Review-Journal, “Nevada Assembly committee tweaks Equal Rights Amendment, moves it step closer to passing
March 7: Las Vegas Review-Journal, “Passing Equal Rights Amendment would move Nevada into 21st century, senator says
  Janette Dean testimony to Assembly committee in support of S.J.R.2
March 4: Washington Post, “Nevada is about to be the first state in more than three decades to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment
March 1: Senate passes ERA bill 13-8
  Las Vegas Review-Journal, “Decades after Congressional deadline, Nevada Senate passes Equal Rights Amendment
  KNPR interview with ERA lead sponsor Sen. Pat Spearman
February 22: Senate committee passes ERA bill 4-1
  Los Angeles Times, “Decades later, Nevada Legislature tries for a do-over to ratify Equal Rights Amendment
February 20: ERA supporters at committee hearing (video)
  Las Vegas Review-Journal, “Debate rages on whether Nevada should pass Equal Rights Amendment” 


July 28: Las Vegas Review-Journal, "ERA isn't nostalgia in Nevada"