In the States

The ERA in the States

The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress on March 22, 1972 and sent to the states for ratification by both houses of their state legislatures.  A proposed amendment becomes part of the Constitution when approved by three-fourths (38) of the 50 states.

During the next five years, 35 states approved the amendment.  By the Congressionally imposed deadline of June 30, 1982, however, no additional states had voted yes, and the ERA fell three states short of ratification.

The 15 states that have not yet ratified the Equal Rights Amendment are Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah, and Virginia.

Beginning in 1995, after formulation of the "three-state strategy" for ERA ratification, ERA bills have been introduced in one or more legislative sessions in nine of the unratified states (Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, Oklahoma, and Virginia). 

The Illinois House, but not the Senate, passed an ERA ratification bill in 2003. In 2011, 2012, and 2014, the Virginia Senate passed a resolution ratifying the Equal Rights Amendment, but the House of Delegates did not release the companion bill from committee for a full vote on the House floor.

Reports from the Grassroots

ERA advocates in the majority of the 15 unratified states and a number of the 35 ratified states have continued to educate and organize politically to put the Equal Rights Amendment into the Constitution. 

Continuing updates are provided here to inform policymakers and the public about political activity that is currently happening with the Equal Rights Amendment at the state level.

Click on the name of a state to to see what's going on there with the ERA.

Unratified States











North Carolina


South Carolina



Ratified States