In Congress

ERA Ratification Bills in the 113th Congress (2013-2014)

Two different types of ERA legislation have been introduced in the 2013-2014 session of Congress:

  • Traditional legislation to ratify the ERA by the Constitution's Article V ratification process, and
  • "Three-state strategy" legislation to remove the time limit on the ERA's ratification process and declare it complete when three-fourths (38) of the states ratify, thereby retaining the existing 35 state ratifications as viable.

Traditional legislation


Sen. Menendez

Senate:  Senate Joint Resolution 10  (S.J. Res. 10)

(For information regarding this bill, go to THOMAS, select "Bill Number," search on "S.J. Res. 10.")

Lead sponsor: Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ); 16 co-sponsors
Introduced March 5, 2013; read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary

Text:

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for men and women.

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring therein), That the following article is proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States:

'Article--

'Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

'Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

'Section 3. This article shall take effect 2 years after the date of ratification.'


Rep. Maloney

House of Representatives:  House Joint Resolution 56  (H.J. Res. 56)

(For information regarding this bill, go to THOMAS, select "Bill Number," search on "H.J. Res. 56.")

Lead sponsor: Rep. Carolyn Maloney (D-NY); 173 co-sponsors
Introduced August 1, 2013; referred to House Committee on the Judiciary

Text:

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for men and women.

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring therein), That the following article is proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States:

'Article--

'Section 1. Women shall have equal rights in the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

'Section 2. Congress and the several States shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

'Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.'


Note: The wording of H.J. Res. 56 differs slightly from S.J. Res. 10 and the Equal Rights Amendment passed by Congress in 1972.

In Section 1, the first sentence has been added to include women specifically in the Constitution and to clarify the intent of the amendment to make discrimination on the basis of a person's sex unconstitutional.  It is adapted from the text of Alice Paul's original 1923 Equal Rights Amendment. The second sentence is identical to the wording of S.J. Res. 10 and the 1972 ERA.

In Section 2, the addition of "and the several States" restores wording that was supported by Alice Paul but that was removed before the amendment's passage in 1972.  It affirms that enforcement of the constitutional prohibition of sex discrimination is a function of both federal and state levels of government. 

"Three-state strategy" legislation


Sen. Cardin

Senate:  Senate Joint Resolution 15 (S.J. Res. 15)

(For information regarding this bill, go to THOMAS, select "Bill Number," search on "S.J. Res. 15.")

Lead sponsor: Sen. Benjamin Cardin (D-MD); 34 co-sponsors, including lead Republican
co-sponsor Sen. Mark Kirk (R-IL)
Introduced May 9, 2013; read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary.

Text:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That notwithstanding any time limit contained in House Joint Resolution 208, 92d Congress, as agreed to in the Senate on March 22, 1972, the article of amendment proposed to the States in that joint resolution shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution whenever ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States.





Rep. Speier
House of Representatives:  House Joint Resolution 113 (H.J. Res. 113)

(For information regarding this bill, go to THOMAS, select "Bill Number," search on "H.J. Res. 113.")

Lead sponsor: Rep. Jackie Speier (D-CA); 109 co-sponsors
Referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary.

Text:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That notwithstanding any time limit contained in House Joint Resolution 208, 92d Congress, as agreed to in the Senate on March 22, 1972, the article of amendment proposed to the States in that joint resolution shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution whenever ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States.

The information below refers to the ERA bills in the recently concluded 112th U.S. Congress (2011-2012).

Senate Co-Sponsors

Senator Menendez has 15 co-sponsors for S.J.Res. 21, listed below alphabetically (click to see member's website).

Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-CT)
Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA)
Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Sen. Benjamin Cardin (D-MD)
Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Sen. Al Franken (D-MN)
Sen. Tom Harkin (D-IA)
Sen. John Kerry (D-MA)
Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ)
Sen. Carl Levin (D-MI)
Sen. Joseph Lieberman(I-CT)
Sen. Barbara Mikulski (D-MD)
Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)
Sen. Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI)

 

House Co-Sponsors

Representatives Maloney and Biggert have 184 additional co-sponsors for H.J.Res 69, listed below alphabetically (click to see member's website).

Rep. Gary Ackerman (D-NY)
Rep. Robert Andrews (D-NJ)
Rep. Joe Baca (D-CA)
Rep. Tammy Baldwin (D-WI)
Rep. Charles Bass (R-NH)
Rep. Karen Bass (D-CA)
Rep. Xavier Becerra (D-CA)
Rep. Shelley Berkley (D-NV)
Rep. Howard L. Berman (D-CA)
Rep. Sanford Bishop (D-GA)
Rep. Timothy H. Bishop (D-NY)
Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR)
Rep. Madeleine Bordallo (D-GU)
Rep. Leonard Boswell (D-IA)
Rep. Robert Brady (D-PA)
Rep. Bruce L. Braley (D-IA)
Rep. Corinne Brown (D-FL)
Rep. G. K. Butterfield (D-NC)
Rep. Lois Capps (D-CA)
Rep. Michael Capuano (D-MA)
Rep. Dennis Cardoza (D-CA)
Rep. Russ Carnahan (D-MO)
Rep. John Carney (D-DE)
Rep. André Carson (D-IN)
Rep. Kathy Castor (D-FL)
Rep. Ben Chandler (D-KY)
Rep. Donna Christensen (D-VI)
Rep. Judy Chu (D-CA)
Rep. David Cicilline (D-RI)
Rep. Hansen Clarke (D-MI)
Rep. Yvette Clarke (D-NY)
Rep. W. Lacy Clay (D-MO)
Rep. Emanuel Cleaver (D-MO)
Rep. James E. Clyburn (D-SC)
Rep. Steve Cohen (D-TN)
Rep. Gerry Connolly (D-VA)
Rep. John Conyers (D-MI)
Rep. Jim Cooper (D-TN)
Rep. Jim Costa (D-CA)
Rep. Jerry F. Costello (D-IL)
Rep. Joe Courtney (D-CT)
Rep. Joseph Crowley (D-NY)
Rep. Henry Cuellar (D-TX)
Rep. Elijah Cummings (D-MD)
Rep. Danny K. Davis (D-IL)
Rep. Susan Davis (D-CA)
Rep. Peter DeFazio (D-OR)
Rep. Diana DeGette (D-CO)
Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT)
Rep. Charles Dent (R-PA)
Rep. Theodore Deutch (D-FL)
Rep. Norman D. Dicks (D-WA)
Rep. John Dingell (D-MI)
Rep. Lloyd Doggett (D-TX)
Rep. Michael F. Doyle (D-PA)
Rep. Donna Edwards (D-MD)
Rep. Keith Ellison (D-MN)
Rep. Eliot Engel (D-NY)
Rep. Anna Eshoo (D-CA)
Rep. Sam Farr (D-CA)
Rep. Chaka Fattah (D-PA)
Rep. Bob Filner (D-CA)
Rep. Barney Frank (D-MA)
Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-NJ)
Rep. Marcia Fudge (D-OH)
Rep. John Garamendi (D-CA)
Rep. Charles Gonzalez (D-TX)
Rep. Al Green (D-TX)
Rep. Gene Green (D-TX)
Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ)
Rep. Luis Gutierrez (D-IL)
Rep. Janice Hahn (D-CA)
Rep. Colleen Hanabusa (D-HI)
Rep. Richard Hanna (R-NY)
Rep. Alcee Hastings (D-FL)
Rep. Martin Heinrich (D-NM)
Rep. Brian Higgins (D-NY)
Rep. James Himes (D-CT)
Rep. Maurice Hinchey (D-NY)
Rep. Ruben Hinojosa (D-TX)
Rep. Mazie Hirono (D-HI)
Rep. Kathleen Hochul (D-NY)
Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ)
Rep. Mike Honda (D-CA)
Rep. Steny Hoyer (D-MD)
Rep. Jay Inslee (D-WA) [resigned]
Rep. Steve Israel (D-NY)
Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee (D-TX)
Rep. Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)
Rep. Henry "Hank" Johnson (D-GA)
Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-OH)
Rep. William Keating (D-MA)
Rep. Dale Kildee (D-MI)
Rep. Ron Kind (D-WI)
Rep. Dennis Kucinich (D-OH)
Rep. James Langevin (D-RI)
Rep. Rick Larsen (D-WA)
Rep. John B. Larson (D-CT)
Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA)
Rep. Sander Levin (D-MI)
Rep. John Lewis (D-GA)
Rep. Frank LoBiondo (R-NJ)
Rep. David Loebsack (D-IA)
Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)
Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY)
Rep. Ben Ray Lujan (D-NM)
Rep. Cynthia Lummis (R-WY)
Rep. Stephen Lynch (D-MA)
Rep. Ed Markey (D-MA)
Rep. Doris Matsui (D-CA)
Rep. Carolyn McCarthy (D-NY)
Rep. Betty McCollum (D-MN)
Rep. Jim McDermott (D-WA)
Rep. James McGovern (D-MA)
Rep. Jerry McNerney (D-CA)
Rep. Gregory Meeks (D-NY)
Rep. Michael Michaud (D-ME)
Rep. Brad Miller (D-NC)
Rep. George Miller (D-CA)
Rep. Gwen Moore (D-WI)
Rep. James Moran (D-VA)
Rep. Christopher Murphy (D-CT)
Rep. Jerry Nadler (D-NY)
Rep. Grace Napolitano (D-CA)
Rep. Richard Neal (D-MA)
Rep. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC)
Rep. John Olver (D-MA)
Rep. Frank Pallone (D-NJ)
Rep. William Pascrell (D-NJ)
Rep. Ed Pastor (D-AZ)
Rep. Donald M. Payne (D-NJ) [deceased]
Rep. Ed Perlmutter (D-CO)
Rep. Gary Peters (D-MI)
Rep. Collin Peterson (D-MN)
Rep. Pedro Pierluisi (D-PR)
Rep. Chellie Pingree (D-ME)
Rep. Jared Polis (D-CO)
Rep. David Price (D-NC)
Rep. Mike Quigley (D-IL)
Rep. Charles Rangel (D-NY)
Rep. Silvestre Reyes (D-TX)
Rep. Laura Richardson (D-CA)
Rep. Cedric Richmond (D-LA)
Rep. Steve R. Rothman (D-NJ)
Rep. Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-CA)
Rep. C. A. Dutch Ruppersberger (D-MD)
Rep. Bobby Rush (D-IL)
Rep. Tim Ryan (D-OH)
Rep. Gregorio Sablan (D-MR)
Rep. Linda Sanchez (D-CA)
Rep. Loretta Sanchez (D-CA)
Rep. John P. Sarbanes (D-MD)
Rep. Jan Schakowsky (D-IL)
Rep. Adam B. Schiff (D-CA)
Rep. Kurt Schrader (D-OR)
Rep. Allyson Y. Schwartz (D-PA)
Rep. David Scott (D-GA)
Rep. Robert "Bobby" Scott (D-VA)
Rep. Jose Serrano (D-NY)
Rep. Terri Sewell (D-AL)
Rep. Brad Sherman (D-CA)
Rep. Albio Sires (D-NJ)
Rep. Louise Slaughter (D-NY)
Rep. Adam Smith (D-WA)
Rep. Jackie Speier (D-CA)
Rep. Pete Stark (D-CA)
Rep. Betty Sutton (D-OH)
Rep. Bennie Thompson (D-MS)
Rep. Mike Thompson (D-CA)
Rep. John Tierney (D-MA)
Rep. Paul Tonko (D-NY)
Rep. Edolphus Towns (D-NY)
Rep. Niki Tsongas (D-MA)
Rep. Chris Van Hollen (D-MD)
Rep. Nydia Velazquez (D-NY)
Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-FL)
Rep. Maxine Waters (D-CA)
Rep. Melvin Watt (D-NC)
Rep. Henry Waxman (D-CA)
Rep. Peter Welch (D-VT)
Rep. Frederica Wilson (D-FL)
Rep. Lynn Woolsey (D-CA)
Rep. John A. Yarmuth (D-KY)

 

Former Co-Sponsors

The following members co-sponsored earlier versions of the ERA ratification bill but have not yet co-sponsored the current Senate or House version.

Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Sen. Richard J. Durbin (D-IL)
Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Sen. Patty Murray (D-WA)
Sen. Bernard Sanders (I-VT)
Sen. Charles Schumer (D-NY)
Rep. Nick Rahall (D-WV)
Rep. Timothy Walz (D-MN)

Note: Rep. Robert Andrews (D-NJ), lead sponsor of three-state strategy legislation (H.J. Res. 43) at the start of the 113th Congress, resigned from the House, and the bill was reintroduced on March 27, 2014, with a new lead sponsor and bill number.